The Balkan peninsula, also called the Balkans (from the abbreviated type of the Balkan Mountains, a mountain system between Bulgaria and Serbia; from the Turkish balkan ‘mountain’ ), is a peninsula in Japanese Europe; it’s bounded to the west by the Adriatic Sea, to the southwest by the Ionian Sea, to the east by the Black Sea, to the southeast by the Sea of Marmara, and to the south by the Aegean Sea.
As usually occurs for the peninsulas, the definition of its border on the mainland is unsure, aggravated by the truth that it’s one in every of its most extensive borders. Moreover, the definition of this dividing line doesn’t assist the truth that the territory presents inside it nice variations and fragmentations by historical past, nationality, language, tradition and faith of the populations who reside there.
The border is often established on the Danube and its tributary Sava. On this manner, elements of Slovenia and Romania (an Japanese Romance-speaking nation) are additionally included on this space, which nonetheless traditionally needed to do with the Balkans solely after the dissolution of the Habsburg Empire. In accordance with geographer Vittorio Vialli, the northern boundary is represented by the geographical line Istria-Odessa. Slovenia excludes from the area the interpretation of the border that features the Kupa River, beginning it from the town of Rijeka and reaching the mouth of the Danube.  On this manner it borders to the west with the so-called Italian geographical area,   which additionally consists of territories that aren’t a part of the Italian Republic. The political definition of the Balkans got here into use within the nineteenth century to designate the European international locations affected by the enlargement and subsequent dissolution of the Ottoman Empire. 
In any case, the traits of the territory, crossed by parallel mountain ranges that hindered the motion in a north-south route and a uniform colonization already on the time of the Greco-Roman enlargement, and its very geographical location assist to clarify the tormented historic occasions which have characterised the peninsula. 
Till 1975 the peninsula was crossed by the Balkan Express, a practice departing from Vienna and arriving in Istanbul. The local weather is continental within the north and east of the territory (with sizzling summers and really chilly winters), whereas the western space and Greece have a Mediterranean local weather.